Comparação entre modalidades de coleta seletiva de materiais recicláveis.

Recycling belt

Porta a porta ou ecoponto?

Você certamente já sabia que a coleta seletiva de resíduos sólidos urbanos pode ser realizada de duas formas, porta a porta ou através de ecopontos, mas você sabe quais as diferenças e as vantagens de cada uma?

Com a publicação da Lei que institui o Plano Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, em 2010, todas as prefeituras do Brasil foram obrigadas, num curto espaço de tempo, a implantar a coleta seletiva de resíduos sólidos em seus municípios. Bem verdade que ainda são poucos os municípios que conseguiram estender a coleta seletiva a 100% de seus territórios, mas, em breve, todos terão que fazê-lo. Então é bom já entender quais as principais diferenças, bem como as vantagens e desvantagens de cada método, para que você possa cobrar a ação correta da sua prefeitura.

A coleta seletiva de resíduos urbanos pode ser feita porta a porta ou através de ecopontos, também conhecidos como PEVs – Pontos de Entrega Voluntária. Na primeira forma, o caminhão responsável pela coleta passa de casa em casa, recolhendo os resíduos selecionados diretamente das mãos do cidadão. Na forma de coleta através de ecopontos ou PEVs, quem se desloca é o cidadão, que conduz os resíduos selecionados até determinados espaços públicos, dotados de caçambas destinadas ao depósito para posterior coleta.

Bem, os métodos são claramente diferentes, mas quais as vantagens e desvantagens de cada um? Os pesquisadores Marcella Bernardo e Renato Lima do Instituto de Engenharia de Produção e Gestão da Universidade Federal de Itajubá, podem ajudar a tirar todas as dúvidas.

Eles realizaram um grande levantamento sobre dados dos municípios que implantaram a coleta seletiva em suas áreas, e chegaram a conclusões bastante significativas.

Segundo a pesquisa, a coleta seletiva porta a porta é o método com maior abrangência, justamente por tornar o dia a dia do cidadão mais confortável, podendo ser implantado mesmo em municípios pouco engajados com a causa ambiental. Por outro lado, é o método mais oneroso para o município, que precisa arcar com os altos custos do deslocamento do caminhão de coleta.

Já a coleta através de ecopontos ou PEVs permite considerável economia de custos, uma vez que o caminhão somente se desloca até pontos determinados e previamente estabelecidos, determinadas vezes por dia, conforme a necessidade. Por outro lado, o método exige um maior engajamento ambiental da comunidade, já que depende do deslocamento do cidadão, conduzindo seu lixo, até os ecopontos. Por isto os melhores resultados com a utilização desta forma de coleta se dão quando os ecopontos são instalados em vias de grande fluxo de pessoas e de resíduos gerados por grandes grupos comerciais ou empresas.

Entendeu a diferença entre as duas formas de coleta seletiva? Pois bem, os pesquisadores da Universidade Federal de Itajubá ainda concluíram que as duas formas de coleta podem ser utilizadas concomitantemente, num mesmo município, para que os melhores resultados sejam alcançados. A coleta porta a porta, implantada nas áreas exclusivamente residenciais, e a coleta através de ecopontos, implantada em grandes áreas comerciais e industriais, parece ser a solução mais adequada às exigências do Plano Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos.

 

 

Fonte:

www.researchgate.net/publication/312198553_Comparacao_entre_modalidades_de_coleta_seletiva_de_materiais_reciclaveis, em 15/02/2018.

 

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